Saturday, September 7, 2013

What is Tabarruj?

Tabarruj By Dr. Saleh as-Saleh [d.1429H]
1. Tabarruj is disobedience to Allah and His Messenger [sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam]
The one who disobeys Allah and His Messenger [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] can only harm himself and can not in any way harm Allah: The Messenger [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] said:
“All of my followers will enter Paradise except those who refuse.” It was asked: “O Messenger of Allah, who would refuse?” He [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] said: “He who obeys me enters Paradise and he who disobeys me has refused.” [Reported by al-Bukhari]
It is reported that Mu’awiyyah [radiallahu ‘anhu] gave a sermon in Greater Syria and in it he mentioned that the Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] prohibited seven things and he named tabarruj as one of them. Musnad Imaam Ahmad 4/101
‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud [radiallahu ‘anhu] reported that the Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] used to dislike ten kinds of behaviour and he [‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud] mentioned that from amongst them is displaying and beautification which is done in an improper place.
Jalaal-ud-Deen as-Suyuti [d.911H] [rahimahullah] said that: “Tabarruj by displaying beautification is showing off to strangers and this is disliked.” This is the explanation of the meaning of ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud’s statement “improper place”, it is not the case if the beautification is done for the husband.
2. Tabarruj is a grave destructive sin
Umayymah, the daughter of Ruqayyah visited the Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] to acknowledge the message of Islam and to acknowledge that he [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] was and is the Messenger of Allah. The Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] said to her:
“I give my acknowledgement that you must not set partners to worship besides Allah, that you do not steal, commit fornication or adultery, that you do not kill your child, that you do not commit any falsehood before your hands and between your legs, that you do not wail and that you do not make tabarruj like that of jahiliyyah [pre-Islamic era].” [Reported by Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad, Shaykh Ahmad Shakir graded the chain of the hadith as “good” and stated that Imam ibn Kathir mentioned this hadith in his tafsir saying that the chain of this narration is “good”]
It’s clear that the Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] associated tabarruj [display of beauty] with grave destructive sins.
3. Tabarruj brings the curse and expulsion from the Mercy of Allah
The Messenger [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] said:
“There shall be [in the later] part of my nation women who are dressed but are in fact naked. On their heads are humps like those of camels. Curse them for they are surely cursed.” [Reported by at-Tabarani, Shaykh al-Albani graded this hadith “sahih”]
4. Tabarruj is an attribute of the people of hell
The Messenger [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] said:
“Of the people of Hell there are two types whom I have never seen: The one possessing whips like the tail of an ox and they flog people with them. The second one the women who would be naked in spite of their being dressed, who are seduced to wrong paths and seduce others with their hair high like humps. These women would not get into Paradise and they would not perceive its odour, although its fragrance can be perceived from such and such distance.” [Reported by Muslim]
5. Tabarruj is darkness on the Day of Resurrection
It is narrated that the Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] said:
“The parable of a woman who moves with a slow sweeping motion trailing her beautified clothes performing not for her husband is like darkness of the Day of Judgement, she has or comes with no light.” [Reported by at-Tirmidhi in his Sunan, Shaykh al-Albani graded the hadith “weak”]
Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi [d.543H] [rahimahullah] said that although this hadith is weak:“…its meaning is correct because the enjoyment in disobedience is in fact torture and suffering. The meaning is that this type of woman will come on the Day of Resurrection black in darkness as if she physically originated from darkness. In contrast, what happens to be difficult and painful in performance of obedient acts is a true enjoyment because of the reward awaiting those who are obedient to Allaah and His Messenger [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam].”
The odour of the mouth of a fasting person may not be a pleasant in this world, to Allah however it is better than the odour of musk because the Muslim has obeyed Allah and performed what is due upon him from fasting. Similarly the woman wearing her hijab may be looked upon as “reactionist”, “old fashioned” or “a walking tent”, she however is the winner on the Day of Resurrection and those who mock her put themselves on a dangerous road and may be subjected to the wrath of Allah [subhanahu wa ta’ala].
6. Tabarruj is hypocrisy
The Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] said:
“The best of your women is the affectionate, the fertile [in productivity], the propitious [favourable], the consultative if they fear Allah. The most evil of your women are the Mutabar’rijat [those who do at-Tabarruj [display their beauty]], the Mutakhayelat [who strut/swagger], and they are the hypocrites. Those who enter Al-Jannah [the Paradise] are like the Cough Crow.” [Reported by al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan]
The cough crow has a red beak and red legs and is rare, so the expression in the hadeeth “cough cow” indicates that the women who will enter Paradise will be few.
7. Tabarruj is disgraceful
The Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] said:
“Any woman who takes of her clothes in other than her husband’s home has broken the shield between her and Allah.” [Reported by Ahmad ibn Hanbal and al-Haakim who said it is “sahih” according to the conditions of al-Bukhari and Muslim and adh-Dhahabi agreed]
Imam Abu Zakariya an-Nawawi [d.676H] [rahimahullah] commenting on this hadith said:
“The saying of the Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam]: ‘Any woman who takes of her clothes in other than her husband’s home’, means showing off her beauty to strangers by taking off her shield of clothes, she has broken the shield between her and Allah [subhanahu wa ta’ala].”
Allah [subhanahu wa ta’ala] stated:
“O Children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover yourselves [screen your private parts, etc.] and as an adornment and the raiment of righteousness, that is better…” [Al-A’raf 7:26]
So if a woman does not fear Allah and uncovers her private parts then she is breaking the shield between her and Allah, Most High, and because she uncovered and dishonoured herself and committed a grievance against her husband then Allah will uncover her shield, she will be in a scandal.
8. Tabarruj is an unchaste and disgraceful sin
The women is ‘awrah, a source of attraction, her body is not to be shown, to wear clothes that show off her body and its shape and features is disgraceful. Allah [subhanahu wa ta’ala] orders us to stay away from disgraceful sins:
“And when they commit a Faahisha [evil deed, going round the Ka’bah in naked state, every kind of unlawful sexual intercourse, etc.], they say: ‘We found our fathers doing it, and Allah has commanded us of it.’ Say: ‘Nay, Allah never commands of Faahisha. Do you say of Allah what you know not?” [Al-A’raf 7:28]
Rather, it is Shaytaan who orders such Faahisha, such disgraceful sins. Allah [subhanahu wa ta’ala] says:
“Shaytaan [Satan] threatens you with poverty and orders you to commit Fahshaa [evil deeds, illegal sexual intercourse, sins etc.]; whereas Allah promises you Forgiveness from Himself and Bounty, and Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Knower.” [Al-Baqarah 2:268]
The Mutabar’rijat [those who do at-Tabarruj [display their beauty]] create a sinful virus that spreads disgraceful sins amongst the Muslim society. Allah [subhanahu wa ta’ala] says:
“Verily, those who like that [the crime of] illegal sexual intercourse should be propagated among those who believe, they will have a painful torment in this world and in the Hereafter. And Allah knows and you know not.” [An-Nur 24:19]
Tabarruj is the leading course for the spread of zina [illegal sexual relations].
9. Tabarruj is a Satanic way
The story of Adam and his wife demonstrates how the enemy of Allah [i.e. Satan] was so keen to incite them to show their private parts in order to spread evil and disgraceful sins. It also shows that tabarruj of women is a primary goal for Shaytaan to achieve.
Allah [subhanahu wa ta’ala] says:
“O Children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover yourselves [screen your private parts, etc.] and as an adornment, and the raiment of righteousness, that is better.” [Al-A’raf 7:26]
It is very clear that Satan is the one who established the call for Tabarruj and showing off and he is the leader of those leaders who call for the liberation of women. Shaytaan in the Imam of everyone who obeys him and follows him in disobedience to Allah, Most Merciful, especially those Mutabar’rijat [those who do at-Tabarruj (display their beauty)] who harm the Muslims and deceive their youth. The Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] said:
“I have not left after me any chance of turmoil more harmful to men than the harm done to them because of women.” [Reported by al-Bukhari]
Adam [‘alaihi-sallam] forgot, made a mistake, repented and asked for forgiveness from Allah and Allah accepted his repentance. The struggle between Adam’s offspring and Shaytaan continues the Devil still whispers to drive us [men and women] to disobey Allah and follow sins and there is no safeguard except in returning to Allah in good faith and repentance, remembering Allah and asking Him for His help to overcome lusts and desires.
10. Tabarruj is the way of the Jews
The Jews have an important role in the destruction of nations through fitnah, the seduction and temptation of women. The spread of tabarruj is an effective weapon of their wide spread establishments. One just has to look around to see Hollywood and famous houses of fashion, advertising, x-rated movies and clothes are all wide spread. In fact, the Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] said:
“Watch out for this worldly life [safeguard yourself from its temptation] guard yourself from the allurement of women. Verily, the first trial for the people of Israel was caused by women.” [Reported by Muslim]
Their [the Jews] books also testify to this fact. In the third chapter of Isaiah it is quoted that:
“Moreover, the LORD said: ‘Because the daughters of Zion are proud and walk with heads held high and seductive eyes, and go along with mincing steps, and tinkle the bangles on their feet. Therefore the Lord will afflict the scalp of the daughters of Zion with scabs, and the LORD will make their foreheads bare’.” [Isaiah, Chapter 3, V.16-17]
“In that day the Lord will take away the beauty of their anklets, headbands, crescent ornaments, dangling earrings, bracelets, veils, headdresses, ankle chains, sashes, perfume boxes, amulets, finger rings, nose rings, festal robes, outer tunics, cloaks, money purses, hand mirrors, undergarments, turbans and veils.” [Isaiah, Chapter 3, V.18-23]
Although the Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] warned against mimicking the non-believers and their ways, many Muslims don’t abide by this warning. This is a testimony for the Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] who said:
“You will tread the same path as was trodden by those before you, inch by inch and step by step, so that if they enter the hole of the lizard you will follow them into it also.” His companions asked him: “Do you mean the Jews and the Christians.” He [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] replied: “Who else?!” [Reported by Muslim]
The similarity of those women who disobey Allah and His Messenger [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] to the Jews is very evident because their response to Allah’s command was and is similar to that of the Jews:
“We have heard and disobeyed.” [Al-Baqarah 2:93]
This is unlike the response of the believing woman who would respond [to the commands of Allah] saying:
“We hear and we obey.” [Al-Baqarah 2:85]
They remember the saying of Allah [subhanahu wa ta’ala]:
“And whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger [Muhammad] after the right path has been shown clearly to him and follows other than the believers’ way. We shall keep him in the path he has chosen, and burn him in Hell – what an evil destination.” [An-Nisa 4:115]
11. Tabarruj is a filthy Jahiliyyah [ignorance]
Allah [subhanahu wa ta’ala] says:
“And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance.” [Al-Ahzab 33:33]
The Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] described the times of ignorance as filthy and wicked and ordered us to reject them. Allah [subhanahu wa ta’ala] described the Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] in that:
“…he allows them as lawful at-Taiyibaat [[i.e. all good and lawful] as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.], and prohibits them as unlawful al-Khabaa’ith [i.e. all evil and unlawful as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.].” [Al-A’raf 7:157]
The call to bring about the times of jahiliyyah is similar to the call for tabarruj, both of which are wicked ways which the Messenger [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] made unlawful. The Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] said:
“Verily, ever matter of jahiliyyah is under my hate.” [Reported by Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, Ahmad and others]
Tabarruj and all forms of jahiliyyah such as false pride and haughtiness, ill thoughts about Allah, call for falsehood, setting up rivals with Allah, ruling by the laws of other than Islam, usury, etc., are all inclusive.
12. Tabarruj is an animal act
To reveal and expose of our natural behaviour to that of animals, whenever man inclines to such behaviour he starts his decline to a level lower than the level of manhood that Allah has bestowed upon him. Allah bestowed a natural inclination towards covering, preservation and safeguarding modesty, to consider the acts of display, exposition and uncovering as an act of beauty represents a corruption of the fitrah [natural disposition/inclination] and is degeneration in state and a sign of decadence and decline.
The progress of mans stability is linked to his or her covering of the body. The hijab cover is fitting to the instinct of ghareeh which draws its strength from the soul. The “so-called” liberation from the chains of covering is an instinct which draws its instincts from lusts which incites tabarruj and mixing of the sexes. The one who is satisfied with the second instinct must sacrifice the first one in order to silence the voice of the innate ghareeh in his heart in return for the “so-called” enjoyment of tabarruj and mixing. From this we understand that tabarruj is a sign of corruption of Fitrah [natural disposition/inclination], lack of bashfulness and insensitivity.
13. Tabarruj is a door to wide-spread evil
Anyone who carefully examines the Islamic texts, the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah and the lessons from history becomes convinced about the evils of tabarruj and its harms, both in religious and worldly matters, especially when it is associated with the mixing of sexes. Some of its underlying consequences are:
  1. The competition amongst the displaying women in showing of their beauty, this is seduction, and it leads to the spoiling of morality and leaves women as merchandised articles for anyone to look at.
  2. The corruption of the morality of men, especially the youth and those in adolescence, it pushes them to commit various kinds of sin. We have seen teenage kids on the corners of many streets in Europe, North America and other parts of the world roaming around smoking, at times half naked, on drugs and looking to engage in sexual relationships. Why, what happened? Many try to hide from the hard facts. The drive for lust and the materialistic life became the objective of the new generation, the Pepsi, Michael MTV Jackson generation. The result, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases!
  3. The destruction of family ties and the causing of a lack of trust between family members and the threat of divorce.
  4. The commercial abuse of women in the world of advertising, entertainment and other areas.
  5. Doing harm to women by declaring their ill intentions and evil conscience thus rendering her venerable to harm by the wicked.
  6. The spread of diseases. The Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] said: “Sin did not spread in any particular nation until they openly conducted [their sins] and as a result plague and other illnesses that were not present amongst their predecessors because present amongst them.”
  7. The facilitation of the sin of zina and fornication of the eye. The Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] said: “The adultery of the eye is the lustful look.”[Reported by Muslim]
  8. Tabarruj makes it difficult to lower the gaze.
  9. It justifiably brings down the Punishment of Allah and His Punishment is more severe then an atomic bomb. Allah says:
“And when We decide to destroy a town [population], We [first] send a definite order [to obey Allah and be righteous] to those among them [or We [first] increase in number those of its population] who are given the good things of this life. Then, they transgress therein, and thus the word [of torment] is justified against it [them]. Then We destroy it with complete destruction.” [Al-Isra 17:16]
The Prophet [sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam] said:
“When people see wrong or evil and they don’t change it then it is eminent that the Punishment of Allah will fall upon them.” [Reported by Abu Dawud and others]
Transcribed [albeit not a verbatim transcription] [by] from: A lecture entitled: “Tabarruj” by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh [d.1429H]

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